IOWC Associate: William Clarence-Smith
MA (Cantab) DipPol (Paris) PhD (London). Dr. Clarence-Smith is Professor of the Economic History of Asia and Africa and Head of the Department of History of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. He is Chief Editor of the Journal of Global History and Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society and Royal Historical Society.
His current research interests include the history of crops and livestock, the history of entrepreneurial diasporas, the history of Islam and Christianity and the history of labour.
2006 Islam and the abolition of slavery. London: Hurst, 293 pp. (Publisher for North America, New York: Oxford University Press.)
2000 Cocoa and chocolate, 1765-1914. London: Routledge, 319 pp.
1985 The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975: A study in economic imperialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 246 pp. (Paperback edition published in 1986.)
(Translated into Portuguese and published as O terceiro império Português, 1825-1975. Lisbon: Editorial Teorema, 1990.)
1979 Slaves, peasants and capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840-1926. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 132 pp.
Edited Collections and Special Issues of Journals
Forthcoming Co-editor (with Raquel Reyes), Sexual diversity in Asia, c. 600-1950. London: Routledge.
2007 "Islamic history as global history." Special issue of Journal of Global History 2.2, 260 pp.
2003 Co-editor (with Steven Topik), The global coffee economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 486 pp. (Paperback edition published in 2006.)
1997 Co-editor (with Ulrike Freitag), Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 392 pp.
1996 Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: the role of smallholders, planters and merchants. London: Macmillan, 247 pp.
1989 The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century . London: Frank Cass, 222 pp. (Also published as a special issue of Slavery & Abolition 9.3 (1988)).
1985 Co-editor (with Daniel Bach), "L'Afrique Australe face à Pretoria." Special issue of Politique Africaine 19: 134 pp.
1983 "Business empires in Equatorial Africa." Special issue of African Economic History 12: 297 pp.
Articles, Chapters and Reviews
Forthcoming "Islamic reform and Southeast Asian homosexuality and cross-dressing, from the fifteenth century to the 1940s." In
Forthcoming "From betel to beverages: a gustatory revolution." In Sensory histories of Southeast Asia, edited by Peter Boomgaard and Raquel Reyes. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Forthcoming "Grands et petits planteurs dans la production de caoutchouc en Afrique, c.1920-c.1970." Special issue, Économies Rurales.
Forthcoming "The Hadhrami sâda and the evolution of an Islamic 'religious international,' c.1750s to 1930s." In
Forthcoming "The expansion of cotton textile production in the western Indian Ocean, c1500-c1850." In Indian Ocean worlds: essays in honour of Prof. K. N. Chaudhuri, edited by Stefan Halikowski-Smith. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Ltd.
Forthcoming "Islamic abolitionism in the western Indian Ocean from c. 1800." In Slavery in the Indian Ocean world, edited by David Blight, Robert Harms and Bernard Freamon. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Forthcoming "Debt and the coercion of labour in the Islamic legal tradition." In Debt and slavery: the history of a process of enslavement, edited by Gwyn Campbell. London: Chatto & Pickering.
Forthcoming "Female circumcision in Southeast Asia since the coming of Islam." In Self-determination and women’s rights in Muslim societies, edited by Chitra Raghavan and James Levine. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.
Forthcoming "The cotton textile industry of Sub-Saharan Eastern Africa in the longue durée." In Understanding African poverty over the longue durée, edited by Emmanuel Akyeampong and Robert Bates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Forthcoming "Rubber cultivation in Indonesia and the Congo from the 1910s to the 1950s: divergent paths." In Colonial exploitation and economic development: the Belgian Congo and the Netherlands Indies compared, edited by Frans Buelens and Ewout Frankema. London: Routledge.
Forthcoming "Trypanosoma evansi (surra): an animal disease weakening Islamic states?." In Proceedings of SOAS camel conference, edited by Ed Emery.
Forthcoming "Africa’s 'battle for rubber' in the Second World War." In Re-centering Africa in the history of the Second World War, edited by Judith Byfield et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Forthcoming "Equids as strategic global commodities, 1750s-1940s." Comparativ.
2011 "The Portuguese empire and the 'battle for rubber' in the Second Word War." Special issue, Portuguese Studies Review 19.1-2: 177-196.
2011 "The redemption of child slaves by Christian missionaries in Central Africa, 1878-1914." In Child slaves in the modern world, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers and Joseph C. Miller, 173-190. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
2011 Co-author (with David Eltis), "White servitude." In The Cambridge world history of slavery vol. 3, edited by David Eltis and Stanley Engerman, 132-159. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2010 "Southeast Asia and China, c. 1800 to c. 1910." In The new Cambridge history of Islam vol. 5, edited by Francis Robinson, 240-268. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2010 "L’esclavage et son abolition dans l’histoire de l’Islam." In Le travail contraint en Asie et en Europe, XVIIe-XXe siècles, edited by Alessandro Stanziani, 93-116. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.
2010 "La SOCFIN (Groupe Rivaud) entre l’Axe et les Alliés." In Les enterprises et l’outre-mer français pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, edited by Hubert Bonin, Christophe Bouneau and Hervé Joly, 99-113. Pessac: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine.
2010 "Diseases of equids in Southeast Asia, c.1800-c.1945: apocalypse or progress?" In Healing the herds: disease, livestock economies, and the globalization of veterinary medicine, edited by Karen Brown and Daniel Gilfoyle, 129-145. Athens: Ohio University Press.
2010 "Synthetic and temperate rubber in the interwar years and during World War II." Journal of Global History 5.1: 171-176. (Review article)
2009 "The battle for rubber in the Second World War: cooperation and resistance." In Commodities of Empire Working Papers 14. Open University and Institute for the Study of the Americas. (Accessible at http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/ferguson-centre/commodities-of-empire/working-papers/WP14.pdf).
2009 "The British 'official mind' and nineteenth-century Islamic debates over the abolition of slavery." In Slavery, diplomacy and empire: Britain and the suppression of the slave trade, 1807-1975, edited by Keith Hamilton and Patrick Salmon, 125-142. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.
2009 "The production of cotton textiles in early modern South-East Asia." In The spinning world: a global history of cotton textiles, 1200-1850, edited by Giorgio Riello and Prasannan Parthasarathi, 127-142. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2009 "Entrepreneurial strategies of Hadhrami Arabs in Southeast Asia, c. 1750s-1950s." In The Hadhrami diaspora in Southeast Asia: identity maintenance or assimilation?, edited by Ahmed I. Abushouk and Hassan A. Ibrahim, 135-158. Leiden: Brill.
2008 "Eunuques et concubines dans le Sud-est asiatique musulman." Special issue, Le Banian, Publication Semestrielle de l’Association Franco-Indonésienne Pasar Malam 6: 56-66.
(Translation of "Eunuchs and concubines in the history of Islamic Southeast Asia." Special issue, Manusya, Journal of Humanities 14 (2007): 8-19, with minimal annotation.)
2008 "Islam and female genital cutting in Southeast Asia: the weight of the past." Special issue, Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration 3.2: 14-22. (Accessible at www.etmu.fi/fjem/pdf/FJEM_2_2008.pdf)
2008 "Église, nation et esclavage: Angola et Mozambique portugais, 1878-1913." In Abolir l’esclavage: un réformisme à l’épreuve, France, Portugal, Suisse, XVIIIe-XIXe siècles, edited by Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, 149-167. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
2008 "The global consumption of hot beverages, c. 1500 to c. 1900." In Food and globalization: consumption, markets and politics in the modern world, edited by Alexander Nützenadel and Frank Trentmann, 37-55. Oxford: Berg, 2008.
2007 "Eunuchs and concubines in the history of Islamic Southeast Asia." Manusya, Journal of Humanities 14: 8-19.
2007 "Islam and the abolition of slavery." Centre for Islamic Studies Newsletter (London School of Theology) 16: 3-4.
2007 "Southeast Asia and Southern Africa in the maritime horse trade of the Indian Ocean, c. 1800-1914." In Breeds of empire: the 'invention' of the horse in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, 1500-1950, edited by Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart, 21-32. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
2007 "Scientific and technological interchanges between the Islamic world and Europe, c. 1450-c. 1800." In Relazioni economiche tra Europa e mondo islamico, secc. XIII-XVIII / Europe's economic relations with the Islamic world, 13th-18th centuries vol. 2, edited by Simonetta Cavaciocchi, 719-737. Prato: Le Monnier.
2007 "Continental European views of the slave trade." Slavery & Abolition 28.1: 127-31. (Review article)
2005 "El cacao en Chiapas durante el largo siglo XIX." In Chiapas: de la independencia a la revolución, edited by Mercedes Olivera and María-Dolores Palomo, 233-251. Mexico City: Publicaciones de la Casa Chata.
2005 "Islam and the abolition of the slave trade and slavery in the Indian Ocean." In Abolition and its aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, edited by Gwyn Campbell, 137-149. London: Routledge.
2005 "Middle-Eastern entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia, c. 1750 - c. 1940." In Diaspora entrepreneurial networks, four centuries of history, edited by Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, and Ioanna Pepelasis Minoglou, 217-244. Oxford: Berg.
2004 "Middle Eastern migrants in the Philippines: entrepreneurs and cultural brokers." Asian Journal of Social Science 32.3: 425-457.
(Original version: "Lebanese and other Middle Eastern migrants in the Philippines." In Population movement beyond the Middle East; migration diaspora and network, edited by Akira Usuki, Omar F. Bajunid and Tomoko Yamagishi, 115-143. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology (JCAS Symposium Series 17), 2005.)
2004 "Horse breeding in Mainland Southeast Asia and its borderlands." In Smallholders and stockbreeders: histories of foodcrop and livestock farming in Southeast Asia, edited by Peter Boomgaard and David Henley, 189-210. Leiden: KITLV Press.
2004 "Cape to Siberia; the Indian Ocean and China Sea trade in equids." In Maritime empires: British imperial maritime trade in the nineteenth century, edited by David Killingray, Margarette Lincoln and Nigel Rigby, 48-67. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer.
2004 "Elephants, horses, and the coming of Islam to Northern Sumatra." Indonesia and the Malay World 32.93: 271-284.
2003 "The coffee crisis in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, 1870-1914." In The global coffee economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, edited by William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, 100-119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2003 Co-author (with Steven Topik), "Introduction: coffee and global development." In The global coffee economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, edited by William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, 1-17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2003 Co-author (with Steven Topik), "Conclusion: new propositions and a research agenda." In The global coffee economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989, edited by William G. Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik, 385-410. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002 "Horse trading: the economic role of Arabs in the Lesser Sunda Islands, c. 1800 to c. 1940." In Transcending borders: Arabs, politics, trade and Islam in Southeast Asia, edited by Huub de Jonge and Nico Kaptein, 143-162. Leiden: KITLV Press.
2002 "The rise and fall of Hadhrami shipping in the Indian Ocean, c1750-c1940." In Ships and the development of maritime technology across the Indian Ocean, edited by David Parkin and Ruth Barnes, 227-258. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
2001 "Indian and Arab entrepreneurs in eastern Africa, 1800-1914." In em>Négoce blanc en Afrique noire; l'évolution du commerce à longue distance en Afrique Noire, du 18e au 20e siècles, edited by Hubert Bonin and Michel Cahen, 335-349. Paris: Société Française d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer.
2001 "The spread of coffee cultivation in Asia, from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century." In Le commerce du café avant l'ère des plantations coloniales, edited by Michel Tuchscherer, 371-384. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale.
2000 "Arab entrepreneurs in the Malay world in the 1930s recession." In Weathering the storm: the economies of Southeast Asia in the 1930s depression, edited by Peter Boomgaard and I. Brown, 229-248. Leiden and Singapore: KITLV Press and ISEAS.
(Earlier version in Working Papers in Economic History 44, 58-72. London: London School of Economics, 1998.)
2000 "The impact of 1898 on Spanish trade and investment in the Philippines." In Old ties and new solidarities, studies on Philippine communities, edited by Charles Macdonald and Guillermo M. Pesigan, 234-268. Manila: Ateneo de Manila Press.
1999 "The modern colonial state and global economic integration, 1815-1945." In State and sovereignty in the global economy, edited by David A. Smith, Dorothy J. Solinger and Steven C. Topik, 120-137. London: Routledge.
1998 "The rise and fall of Maluku cocoa production in the nineteenth century: lessons for the present." In Old World places, New World problems: exploring resource management issues in eastern Indonesia, edited by Sandra Pannell and Franz von Benda-Beckmann, 113-142. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies.
1998 "The economic role of the Arab community in Maluku, 1816 to 1940." Indonesia and the Malay World 26.74: 32-49.
1997 "The Rivaud-Hallet plantation group in the economic crises of the inter-war years." In Private enterprises during economic crises: tactics and strategies, edited by Pierre Lanthier and Hubert Watelet, 117-132. Ottawa: Legas.
1997 "Hadhramaut and the Hadhrami diaspora in the modern colonial era: an introductory survey." In Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s, edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, 1-18. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
1997 "Hadhrami entrepreneurs in the Malay World, c. 1750 to c. 1940." In Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s, edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, 297-314. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
1997 Co-author (with Janet Ewald), "The economic role of the Hadhrami diaspora in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, 1820s to 1930s." In Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s, edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, 281-296. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
1996 Co-author (with F. Ruf), "Cocoa pioneer fronts: the historical determinants." In Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: the role of smallholders, planters and merchants, edited by William G. Clarence-Smith, 1-22. London: Macmillan.
1996 "Le cacao dans l'économie tropicale, de 1800 à 1940." In Chocolat, de la boisson élitaire au bâton populaire, XVIe-XXe siècle, edited by Emmanuel Collet, 105-120. Brussels: CGER.
(Translated and published as "Cacao in de economie van de tropen, van 1800 tot 1940." In Chocolade, van drank voor edelman tot reep voor alleman, 16de-20ste eeuw, edited by Emmanuel Collet, 105-120. Brussels: CGER, 1996.)
1995 "Cocoa plantations in the Third World, 1870s-1914: the political economy of inefficiency." In The New Institutional Economics and Third World development, edited by John Harriss, Janet Hunter and Colon Lewis, 157-171. London: Routledge.
(Re-issued in paperback in 1997.)
1995 "The cocoa crisis and land reform in São Tomé e Principe." In Cocoa cycles: the economics of cocoa supply, edited by François Ruf and P. S. Siswoputranto, 233-247. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
1994 "The organisation of "consent" in British West Africa, 1820s to 1960s." In Contesting colonial hegemony, state and society in Africa and India, edited by Dagmar Engels and Shula Marks, 55-78. London: British Academic Press.
1994 "The impact of forced coffee cultivation on Java, 1805-1917." Indonesia Circle 64: 241-264.
1994 "The contribution of Africans and Europeans to cocoa cultivation on Fernando Póo, 1882-1914." Journal of African History 35.2: 179-200.
1994 "The dynamics of the African slave trade." Africa 64.2: 275-286. (Review article)
1993 "Struggles over labour conditions in the plantations of São Tomé and Príncipe, 1875-1914." In The wages of slavery: from chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean, and England, edited by Michael Twaddle, 149-167. London: Frank Cass.
(Also published in Slavery & Abolition 14.1 (1993): 149-167.)
1993 "Cocoa plantations and coerced labour in the Gulf of Guinea, 1870-1914." In Breaking the chains: slavery, bondage and emancipation in modern Africa and Asia, edited by Martin Klein, 150-170. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
1992 "Planters and smallholders in Portuguese Timor in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries." Indonesia Circle 57: 15-30.
1991 "The economic dynamics of Spanish colonialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries." Itinerario 15.1: 71-90.
1990 "The hidden costs of labour on the cocoa plantations of São Tomé and Príncipe, 1875-1914." Portuguese Studies 6: 152-172.
1990 "Emigration from Western Africa, 1807-1940." Itinerario 14.1: 45-60.
(Also published in European expansion and migration: essays on the intercontinental migration from Africa, Asia and Europe, edited by Pieter C. Emmer and Magnus Mörner, 197-210. Oxford: Berg, 1992.)
1989 "Indian business communities in the Western Indian Ocean in the nineteenth century." The Indian Ocean Review 2.4: 18-21.
1989 "The roots of the Mozambican counter-revolution." Southern African Review of Books 2.4: 7-10. (Review article)
1989 "Le problème ethnique en Angola." In Les ethnies ont une histoire, edited by Jean-Pierre Chrétien and Gérard Prunier, 405-415. Paris: Karthala.
1989 "Creoles and peasants in São Tomé, Príncipe, Fernando Póo and Mount Cameroun in the nineteenth century." In PPrimeira reunião internacional de história de Africa: Relação Europa-Africa no terceiro quartel do século XIX, Actas, edited by Maria Emilia Madeira Santos, 489-499. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga.
1989 "From plantation to peasant cocoa production in German Cameroun" In Conference on the political economy of Cameroon, historical perspectives vol. 2, edited by Peter Geschiere and Piet Konings, 483-502. Leiden: African Studies Centre.
(Revised as "Plantation versus smallholder production of cocoa: the legacy of the German period in Cameroon." In Itinéraires d'accumulation au Cameroun, edited by Peter Geschiere and Piet Konings, 187-216. Paris: Karthala, 1993.)
1989 "La traite portugaise et espagnole en Afrique au XIXe siècle." In De la traite à l'esclavage, actes du colloque international sur la traite des noirs, edited by Serge Daget, 425-434. Nantes: Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire du Monde Atlantique.
1989 "The effects of the Great Depression of the 1930s on industrialisation in Equatorial and Central Africa." In The economies of Africa and Asia in the inter-war depression,, edited by Ian Brown, 170-202. London: Routledge.
1989 "The economics of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea slave trades in the 19th century: an overview." In The economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century, edited by William G. Clarence-Smith,1-20. London: Frank Cass.
(Also published in Slavery & Abolition 9.3 (1988): 1-20.)
1988 "The economic dynamics of Spanish imperialism: 1898-1945." In Segunda aula Canarias y el Noroeste de Africa (1986), edited by Victor Morales Lezcano, 17-28. Las Palmas: Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria.
(Translated and published as "La dynamique économique de l"impérialisme espagnol, 1898-1945." Cahiers d'Histoire de l'Institut de Recherches Marxistes 54 (1994): 51-64.)
1988 "The Portuguese and Spanish roles in the Scramble for Africa: an economic interpretation." In Bismarck, Europe and Africa: the Berlin West Africa Conference and the onset of partition, edited by Stig Förster et al., 215-227. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1988 "The Angolan connection in Namibian history." In Namibia, 1884-1984, readings on Namibia"s history and society, edited by Brian Wood, 171-174. London: Namibia Support Committee.
1987 "Le MPLA et la paysannerie angolaise: un exemple pour le Zaïre?" In Rébellions-révolutions au Zaïre, 1963-1965 vol. 2, edited by Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch et al., 106-114. Paris: L'Harmattan.
1987 "'The imperialism of beggars': the role of the less developed powers in the nineteenth century scramble for colonies." In The City and Empire, Collected Seminar Papers vol. 2, 94-100. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies.
1986 "Spanish Equatorial Guinea, 1898-1940." In Cambridge History of Africa vol. 7, edited by Andrew Roberts, 537-543. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1986 "Portuguese trade with Africa in the 19th century: an economic imperialism (with an appendix on the trade of Angola)." In Figuring African trade; proceedings of the symposium on the quantification and structure of the import and export and long distance trade in Africa, edited by G. Liesegang et al., 394-411. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
1986 "Runaway slaves and social bandits in Southern Angola, 1875-1913." In Out of the house of bondage, runaways, resistance and marronage in Africa and the New World, edited by Gad Heuman, 23-33. London: Frank Cass.
(Also published in Slavery & Abolition 6.3 (1986): 23-33.)
1986 "O proteccionismo e a produção de açúcar na Africa Central e Equatorial, Angola, Moçambique, Zaïre, Zimbabwe, 1910-1945." Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos 4-5: 159-189.
(Translated and abridged as "Protectionism and sugar production in Central and Equatorial Africa, 1910-1945." In The world sugar economy in war and depression, 1914-1940, edited by Bill Albert and Adrian Graves, 209-220. London: Routledge, 1988.)
1986 "International library and archival cooperation: Portugal and Spain." In African Studies, edited by I. Sternberg and P. Larby, 179-182. London: The British Library.
1985 "Business empires in Angola under Salazar, 1930-1961." African Economic History 14: 1-13.
1985 "Liberation struggles and independence in Lusophone Africa in four recent books." Portuguese Studies 1: 225-227. (Review article)
1985 "The impact of the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War on Portuguese and Spanish Africa." Journal of African History 26: 309-326.
(Translated and published as "El impacto de dos guerras: Africa Portuguesa y Española, 1936-1945." Africa 2000 2.2-3 (1987): 20-22 and 31-9.)
1985 "What is Third World History?" History Today 35:40-41.
(Republished in What is history today?, edited by J. Gardiner, 158-160. London: Macmillan, 1988.)
1985 "Thou shalt not articulate modes of production." Canadian Journal of African Studies 19.1: 19-22.
(Also published in Mode of production: the challenge of Africa, edited by Bogumil Jewsiewicki and J. Létourneau, 19-22. Ste. Foy, QC: Safi Press, 1985.)
1985 Co-author (with A. K. Smith), "Angola and Mozambique, 1870-1905." Cambridge history of Africa vol. 6, 493-521. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1984 "The Portuguese contribution to the Cuban slave and coolie trades in the nineteenth century." Slavery and Abolition 5.1: 24-31.
(Earlier version in Caribbean Societies, Collected Seminar Papers vol. 2, 70-77. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 1985.)
1984 "The sugar and rum industries in the Portuguese empire, 1850-1914." In Crisis and change in the international sugar economy, 1860-1914, edited by Bill Albert and Adrian Graves, 227-235. Norwich: ISC Press.
1983 "Business empires in Equatorial Africa." African Economic History 12: 3-11.
1983 "Les investissements belges en Angola, 1912-1961." In em>Actes du colloque entreprises et entrepreneurs en Afrique, XIXe et XXe siècles vol. 1, by Laboratoire Connaissance du Tiers-Monde, 423-441. Paris: L'Harmattan.
1983 "Capital accumulation and class formation in Angola, c.1875-1961." In History of Central Africa vol. 2, edited by D. Birmingham and P. Martin, 163-199. London: Longman.
1980 "Class structure and class struggles in Angola in the 1970s." Journal of Southern African Studies 7.1: 109-126. (Review article)
1979 "Slaves, commoners and landlords in Bulozi, c.1875-1906." Journal of African History 20.2: 219-34.
1979 "The myth of uneconomic imperialism: the Portuguese in Angola, 1836-1926." Journal of Southern African Studies 5.2: 165-180. (Review article)
1978 "Capitalist penetration among the Nyaneka of Southern Angola, 1760s to 1920s." African Studies 37.2: 163-176.
1977 "For Braudel: a note on the Ecole des Annales and the historiography of Africa." History in Africa 4: 275-281.
1976 "Slavery in coastal Southern Angola, 1875-1913." Journal of Southern African Studies 2.2: 214-223.
1976 "The Thirstland Trekkers in Angola: some reflections on a frontier society." In The Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Collected Seminar Papers vol. 6, 42-51. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies.
1976 "Report on the history workshop 'Pre-capitalist social formations and colonial penetration in Southern Africa.'" Africa Perspective 5. (Review article)
1975 Co-author (with R. Moorsom), "Underdevelopment and class formation in Ovamboland, 1845-1915." Journal of African History 16.3: 365-381.
(Revised version in The roots of rural poverty in Central and Southern Africa, edited by Robin Palmer and Neil Parsons, 96-112. London: Heinemann, 1977.)
(Also republished in Namibia, 1884-1984, Readings on Namibia's history and society, edited by Brian Wood, 175-189. London: Namibia Support Committee, 1988.)
1973 "South Africa and Mozambique, 1960-1970." In The Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Collected Seminar Papers vol. 3, 174-188. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies.